Moh: Qasim Ayaz 1 ; Ahmad Nabi Nayel 2
1 Assistant Professor, BBA Department, Kardan University, Kabul, Afghanistan.
2 Lecturer, BBA Department, Kardan University, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Article Id - IJMHRM_12_02_004, Pages : 42-52, Date of Publication : 20, July 2021

DOI:   6 Downloads   24 Views   0 Citation
Google Scholar Link
Academia Link


Far from doubt, talent management has established much consideration of scholars, researchers, academics, practitioners and all competitive organizations in recent years, but still much gapes exist for further studies. In this view, the study aims to evaluate the influence of talent management practices (talent identification, talent retention & talent development) on sustainable competitive advantage on selected higher educational institutions in Kabul, Afghanistan. Five different higher institutions were targeted population. A sample size of 250 respondents were selected from listed higher institution. The results revealed that there is a strong positive association between talent management practices (TMP) and sustainable competitive advantage. All three hypotheses are accepted in final remarks of the study. Furthermore, the study applies quantitative approach and entire data collected through adopted questionnaire translated into two national languages (Pashto & Dari). Based on data analysis and current literate the paper suggests new model (see, future direction) to explore the sense of sustainable competitive advantage within higher educational institutions in Kabul, Afghanistan. 


Talent Management Practices, (talent Identification, Talent Retention & Talent Development), Sustainable Competitive Advantage

Share and Cite:

Moh: Qasim Ayaz and Ahmad Nabi Nayel, Gaining Sustainable Competitive Advantage through Talent Management Practices: Evidence from Selected Higher Educational Institutions in Kabul, Afghanistan. International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management, 12(2), 2021, pp. 42–52 doi:


[1]    Schiemann, W. A. (2014). From talent management to talent optimization. Journal of World Business, 49(2), 281-288.
[2]    Barkhuizen, N., Welby-Cooke, G., Schutte, N., & Stanz, K. (2014). Talent management and leadership reciprocity: The case of the South African aviation industry. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(9), 11-11.
[3]    Stuart-Kotze, R., & Dunn, C. (2008). Who Are Your Best People?: How to find, measure andmanage your top talent. Pearson education.
[4]    Frank, F. D., Finnegan, R. P., & Taylor, C. R. (2004). The race for talent: Retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century. Human resource planning, 27(3).
[5]    Saxena, P. (2013). Talent management: a strategic perspective. Anveshanam–A National Journal of Management, 1(1), 49-55.
[6]    Jyoti, J., & Rani, R. (2014). Exploring talent management practices: antecedents and consequences. International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy, 8(4), 220    248.
[7]    Collings, D. G., & Mellahi, K. (2009). Strategic talent management: A review and research agenda. Human resource management review, 19(4), 304-313.
[8]    Mellahi, K., & Collings, D. G. (2010). The barriers to effective global talent management: The example of corporate elites in MNEs. Journal of World Business, 45(2), 143-149.
[9]    Sheehan, M., & Anderson, V. (2015). Talent management and organizational diversity: A call for    research. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 26(4), 349-358.
[10]    Thunnissen, M., Boselie, P., & Fruytier, B. (2013). Talent management and the relevance of context: Towards a pluralistic approach. Human resource management review, 23(4), 326 336.
[11]    Festing, M., & Schäfer, L. (2014). Generational challenges to talent management: A framework for talent retention based on the psychological-contract perspective. Journal of World Business, 49(2), 262-271.
[12]    Gallardo-Gallardo, E., Dries, N., & González-Cruz, T. F. (2013). What is the meaning of ‘talent’in the world of work?. Human Resource Management Review, 23(4), 290-300.
[13]    Lewis, R. E., & Heckman, R. J. (2006). Talent management: A critical review. Human resource management review, 16(2), 139-154.
[14]    Gallardo-Gallardo, E., Dries, N., & González-Cruz, T. F. (2013). What is the meaning of ‘talent’in the world of work?. Human Resource Management Review, 23(4), 290-300.
[15]    Gelens, J., Hofmans, J., Dries, N., & Pepermans, R. (2014). Talent management and organizational    justice: Employee reactions to high potential identification. Human Resource Management Journal, 24(2), 159-175.
[16]    Blau, P. M. (1964). Social exchange theory. Retrieved September, 3(2007), 62.
[17]    Colquitt, J. A. (2001). On the dimensionality of organizational justice: a construct validation of a measure. Journal of applied psychology, 86(3), 386.
[18]    Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American sociological review, 161-178.
[19]    Gouldner, H. P. (1960). Dimensions of organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 468-490.
[20]    Haynie, J. J., Mossholder, K. W., & Harris, S. G. (2016). Justice and job engagement: The role of senior management trust. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(6), 889-910.
[21]    Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of management, 31(6), 874-900.
[22]    Chadwick-Jones, J. K. (1976). Social exchange theory: Its structure and influence in social psychology (No. 8). Academic press.
[23]    Blau, P. M. (1964). Justice in social exchange. Sociological inquiry, 34(2), 193-206.
[24]    Blau, P. M. (1964). Social exchange theory. Retrieved September, 3(2007), 62.
[25]    Björkman, I., Ehrnrooth, M., Mäkelä, K., Smale, A., & Sumelius, J. (2013). Talent or not? Employee reactions to talent identification. Human Resource Management, 52(2), 195 214.
[26]    Cropanzano, R., Anthony, E. L., Daniels, S. R., & Hall, A. V. (2017). Social exchange theory: A critical review with theoretical remedies. Academy of Management Annals, 11(1), 479 516.
[27]    Saks, A. M. (2019). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement revisited. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance.
[28]    Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R. C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader–member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of applied psychology, 81(3), 219.
[29]    Colquitt, J. A., Greenberg, J., & Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2005). What is organizational justice? A historical overview.
[30]    Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of applied psychology, 86(3), 425.
[31]    Haynie, J. J., Mossholder, K. W., & Harris, S. G. (2016). Justice and job engagement: The role of senior management trust. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(6), 889-910.
[32]    Collier, J., & Esteban, R. (2007). Corporate social responsibility and employee commitment. Business ethics: A European review, 16(1), 19-33.
[33]    Slack, R. E., Corlett, S., & Morris, R. (2015). Exploring employee engagement with (corporate) social responsibility: A social exchange perspective on organizational participation. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(3), 537-548.
[34]    Adams, J. S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(5), 422.
[35]    Glass, R. S., & Wood, W. A. (1996). Situational determinants of software piracy: An equity theory    perspective. Journal of business ethics, 15(11), 1189-1198.
[36]    Jaddoe, V. W., van Duijn, C. M., Franco, O. H., van der Heijden, A. J., van IIzendoorn, M. H., de Jongste, J. C., & Hofman, A. (2012). The Generation R Study: design and cohort update 2012. European journal of epidemiology, 27(9), 739-756.
[37]    Ntonga, S. (2010). The impact of talent management practices on business performance (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).
[38]    Alruwaili, N. F. (2018). Talent management and talent building in upgrading employee performance. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 7(1), 98-98.
[39]    Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
[40]    Bryant, P. C., & Allen, D. G. (2013). Compensation, benefits and employee turnover: HR strategies for retaining top talent. Compensation & Benefits Review, 45(3), 171-175.
[41]    Shotton, J., Fitzgibbon, A., Cook, M., Sharp, T., Finocchio, M., Moore, R., & Blake, A. (2011, June). Real-time human pose recognition in parts from single depth images. In CVPR 2011 (pp. 1297-1304). Ieee.
[42]    Mellahi, K., & Collings, D. G. (2010). The barriers to effective global talent management: The example of corporate elites in MNEs. Journal of World Business, 45(2), 143-149.
[43]    Collings, D. G., Demirbag, M., Mellahi, K., & Tatoglu, E. (2010). Strategic orientation, human resource management practices and organizational outcomes: evidence from Turkey. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(14), 2589-2613.
[44]    Farrukh, M., & Waheed, A. (2015). Learning organization and competitive advantage-An integrated approach. Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 5(4), 73.
[45]    Armstrong, M. (2010). Armstrong's essential human resource management practice: A guide to people management.
[46]    Mishra, R. R., Singh, M., & Kumar, S. (2021, January). Establishing link between Talent Development Practices and Organizational Performance. In 2021 2nd International Conference on Computation, Automation and Knowledge Management (ICCAKM) (pp. 315-320). IEEE.
[47]    Chiekezie, O. M., Emejulu, G., & Nwanneka, A. (2017). Compensation management and employee retention of selected commercial banks in Anambra State, Nigeria. Archives of Business Research, 5(3).
[48]    Nzewi, H., Chiekezie, O., & Ogbeta, M. (2015). Talent management and employee performance in selected commercial banks in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. European journal of business and social sciences, 4(09).
[49]    Dessler, G., & Varrkey, B. (2005). Human Resource Management, 15e. Pearson Education India.
[50]    Kaur, P., Sharma, S., Kaur, J., & Sharma, S. K. (2015). Using social media for employer branding and talent management: An experiential study. IUP Journal of Brand Management, 12(2), 7.
[51]    Osibanjo, A. O., Adeniji, A. A., Falola, H. O., & Heirsmac, P. T. (2014). Compensation packages: a strategic tool for employees' performance and retention. Leonardo Journal of Sciences, (25), 65-84.
[52]    Hameed, A., Ramzan, M., & Zubair, H. M. K. (2014). Impact of compensation on employee performance (empirical evidence from banking sector of Pakistan). International journal    of business and social science, 5(2).
[53]    Sulaefi, S. (2018). The Influence of Compensation, Organization Commitment and Career Path to Job Performance Employees at Kardinah Hospital Tegal Indonesia. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS), 47(1), 66-75.
[54]    Rabbi, F., Ahad, N., Kousar, T., & Ali, T. (2015). Talent management as a source of competitive advantage. Journal of Asian business strategy, 5(9), 208.
[55]    Mangusho, Y. S., Murei, R. K., & Nelima, E. (2015). Evaluation of talent management on employees performance in beverage industry: A case of delmonte Kenya Limited. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5(8), 191-199.
[56]    Khakwani, S., Aslam, H. D., Azhar, M. S., & Mateen, M. M. (2012). Coaching and mentoring for    enhanced learning of human resources in organizations:(Rapid multiplication of workplace learning to improve individual performance). Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(1), 257-257.
[57]    Achi, S. E., & Sleilati, E. (2016). The effect of coaching on employee performance in the human resource management field: the case of the Lebanese banking sector. International Journal of Trade and Global Markets, 9(2), 137-169.
[58]    Jones, R. J., Woods, S. A., & Guillaume, Y. R. (2016). The effectiveness of workplace coaching: A meta‐analysis of learning and performance outcomes from coaching. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 89(2), 249-277.
[59]    Singh, A., & Sharma, J. (2015). Strategies for talent management: A study of select organizations    in the UAE. International Journal of Organizational Analysis.
[60]    Ofobruku, S. A., & Nwakoby, N. P. (2015). Effects of mentoring on employees' performance in selected family business in Abuja, Nigeria. Singaporean Journal of Business, Economics and Management Studies, 51(2681), 1-22.
[61]    Neupane, R. (2015). Effects of coaching and mentoring on employee performance in the UK hotel industry. International Journal of Social Sciences and Management, 2(2), 123-138.
[62]    Mundia, C. N., & Iravo, M. (2014). Role of mentoring programs on the employee performance in organisations: A survey of public universities in Nyeri County, Kenya.
[63]    Raza, B., Ali, M., Ahmed, S., & Moueed, A. (2017). Impact of managerial coaching on employee performance and organizational citizenship behavior: Intervening role of thriving at work. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), 11(3), 790-813.
[64]    Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics, 5(1), 1-4.
[65]    Rovena, E. (2020). Management Of Talent Identification and Selection System in Albania. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, (6), 72 77.
[66]    Lyria, R. K., & Namusonge, G. S. (2017). The effect of talent retention on organizational performance of firms listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange.
[67]    Thomas, C. E., Gastin, P. B., Abbott, G., & Main, L. C. (2020). Impact of the talent development environment on the wellbeing and burnout of caribbean youth track and field athletes. European Journal of Sport Science, 1-14.


Scope Database

International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM) is indexed in Scope Database from 2010 to 2021

Please click the following link to see thescreenshot

Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics)

Total citation of 9 from IJMHRM Journal published from 2010 to 2021

Please click the following link to see thescreenshot


Total citation of 353 from IJMHRM Journal published from 2010 to 2021

Please click the following link to see thescreenshot

Scope Database Source Link:

Our IAEME Publication journals are indexed in various indexing search engines

 International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management is an international peer-reviewed journal. We disseminate on Marketing and HRM information to researchers and practitioners.

    IJMHRM is a refereed journal on Marketing, Advertising, Sales Management and Human Resource Management. Its objective is to disseminate knowledge which ensures good practice of professional marketing. By encouraging research and thinking, it attempts to contribute to a better perception of marketing theories, its framework, resources, structures, systems, processes and performance of organizations. Its focal point is on research and reflections relevant to academicians and practicing managers.

  Journal follows the Open Peer Refereeing Process for reviewing the research papers. Being a continuous medium of marketing education, it enjoys the readership of academicians, students and marketing managers from top B-schools, universities and colleges in India and abroad. Covering the broad spectrum of human resource management, this journal provides practicing managers and academics with the latest concepts, tools, and information for effective problem solving and decision making in this field. Broad in scope, it explores issues of societal, organizational, and individual relevance. Journal articles discuss new theories, new techniques, case studies, models, and research trends of particular significance to practicing managers.

    Journal is an applied, peer-reviewed journal which aims to communicate the development and practice of the field of human resource and marketing management. . The journal publishes the results of research, theoretical and conceptual developments, and examples of current practice.

    The Journal encourages strategically focused articles on a wide range of issues including employee participation, human resource flow, reward systems and high commitment work systems. The Journal aims to address major issues arising from: internationalization of market integration, increased competition, technological change, new concepts of line management, changing corporate climates etc.

Chief Editor

Dr. Iskandar Muda - Professor, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia

Managing Editor

Dr. Nitin Singh - Professor, Operations Management & Information Systems, IIM Ranchi, India

Dr. Nekane Balluerka - Professor, Faculty of Psychology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain

Associate Editor

Dr. R. Magesh - Professor, Department of Management Studies, Anna University, Chennai, India

Dr. Vaddadi Krishna Mohan - Professor of Marketing, Department of Commerce and Management Studies, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India

Editorial Board

Dr. Hamid Saremi - Azad Islamic University of Iran-Quchan Branch, Iran

Dr. Deepika Ttiwari - Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim, India

Dr. Hari Sundar.G. Ram - Sree Narayana Gurukulam College of Engineering, Kerala, India

Dr. Shivakumar Deene - Central University of Karanataka, Kadaganchi, Karanataka, India

Dr. S. Saiganesh - Dayananda Sagar Business School, Karnataka, India

Dr. Alka Swami - Government College of Engineering & Technology Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Dr. Bamrara A. - Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Uttarakhand, India

Dr. Nawab Ali Khan - Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Dr. B. Ravi Kumar - Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Andhra Pradesh, India

Dr. Mihir Kumar Shome - Galgotias Business School, India

Dr. Pratap Raghunath Desai - Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Maharashtra, India

Dr. Swaranjeet Arora - Prestige Institute of Management and Research, Madhya Pradesh, India

Dr. A. R. Krishnan - SRM University, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. V. Antony Joe Raja - Prince Group of Companies, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. Shraddha Chowdhary - Kasturba Gandhi College for Women, Secunderabad, India

Dr. Sivanesan R - St.Alphonsa College of Arts and Science, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. V. Raghu Raman - Ibra College of Technology, Oman

Dr. V. Rama Devi - Sikkim Central University, Sikkim, India

Dr. K. Abdus Samad - Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous) Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. Georgios Palaiologos - Royal University for Women, Bahrain

Dr. Sabina Irimie - University of Petrosani, Romania

Dr. N. Shaikmohamed - Jamal Mohamed College(Autonomous) Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. Venkata SSRM - Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Dr. J. Khaja Sheriff - University of Madras, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy - International University of Japan - Banking University HCM city Vietnam

Dr. P. Venkaiah Babuu - Eswar College of Engineering, Narasaraopet, Andhra Pradesh, India

Dr. Alka Munjal - Dean , Amity University UP, India

Dr. KDV Prasad - Professor, Department of Management Studies, RTM Nagpur University, MS, India

Dr. Manjula Chaudary - Professor, Dept. of Tourism & Hotel Management, Kurukshetra University, India

Dr. Abdullah Said - Faculty of Administrative Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Dr. N. Venkateswaran - Professor, Department of Management Studies, Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai, India

Dr. Isfenti Sadalia - Professor, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia

Dr. Giriraj Kiradoo - Associate Professor, Department of Management & Technology, Government Engineering College Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Dr. K.K. Ramachandran - Professor and Director, GRD Institute of Management, Coimbatore, India

Dr. Pon Ramalingam - Professor, Department of Management Studies, Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai, India

Dr. J. Joseph Francis - Professor, Firebird Institute of Research in Management, Coimbatore, India

Dr. Kavitha Muthukumaran - Assistant Professor, SSN School of Management, Chennai, India

Dr. N. Kannan - Professor, School of Management Studies, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India

Dr. Fahd Alduais - Department of Accounting, National Institute of administrative Sciences, Ibb, Yemen

Prof. Devi Prasad Misra - Professor, Department of Business Management, Fakir Mohan University, Odisha, India

Dr. P. Jagadeesan - Professor and Head, Department of Commerce (General), School of Management Studies & Commerce, Vels Institute of Science, Technology & Advanced Studies (VISTAS), Tamilnadu, India

Dr. Raghavendra GS - Researcher, University of Mysore, Karnataka, India; Managing Director Geloof Industries Pvt Ltd, Bangalore, India

Dr. Shankar Lingam. Macharla - National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj (NIRDPR), Telangana, India

Dr. Priyanka Dave - Academician, Researcher and, L & D Consultant, USA

Prof. Ernest Ofori Asamoah - Dean, School of Business, Regent University College of Science and Technology, Accra, Ghana

Dr. Nurul Mohammad Zayed - Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Prof. Devi Prasad Misra - Head and Dean, Department of Business Management, F.M. University, Vyasa Vihar Balasore, Odisha, India

Dr. Anish K Ravi - Chennai Business School , India

Dr. Dilnaz Muneeb - Abu Dhabi University, United Arab Emirates

Dr. Trilok Kumar Jain - Professor and Dean,International School of Business Management (ISBM),Suresh Gyan Vihar University Jaipur, India

Dr. Anamika Rawat - Associate Professor, Department of Management Studies, SRK University, Bhopal, India

Dr. Anita Walia - Associate Professor, Center for Management Studies, Jain Deemed to be University, Bangalore, India

Dr. K. Sreenivasaiah - Special officer Academics Joint Director office Mangalore and Asst. Professor of Economics Govt First Grade College For Women’s, Mangalore, Karnataka.

Reviewer Board

Dr. N.Shani - Professor, Department of Business Administration, Nehru arts and science college, Coimbatore, India

Dr. T. Manvel Raj - Mohamed Sathak A.J.College of Engineering, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. Dhanuraj - Management Consultant, India

Prof. Sanobar Anjum - Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Saudi Arabia

Dr. Anshul Gangele - Institute of Technology & Management, India

Dr. Davinder Sharma - Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Professional Studies, Delhi, India

Prof. Srinivas K T - Community Institute of Management Studies (CIMS), Karnataka, India

Dr. Rajesh U Kanthe - Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, India

Dr. A.Selvaraj - Gobi Arts and Science College,Tamilnadu, India

Dr. M.A.Lahori - Anekant Institute of Management Studies, Baramati, Pune, India

Prof. Shraddha Mayuresh Bhome - Future Institute of Engineering and Management and Future Business School, West Bengal, India

Dr. Bhadrappa Haralayya - Head of the Department and Associate Professor Department of MBA, Lingaraj Appa Engineering College, Bidar, Karnataka, India

For Authors

Manuscripts should be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript through the online manuscript submission system. Submissions by anyone other than one of the authors will not be accepted.
Regardless of the source of the word-processing tool, only electronic PDF or MS-Word files can be submitted through the online submission system. If for some technical reason online submission is not successful, the author can submit the manuscript to

Paper title (14 Bold)- Capital Letter

First Author1, Second Author2 (13 Bold- Times New Roman)

1(Department, College/ University Name, Address, Country Name, Email) (12)

2(Department, College/ University Name, Address, Country Name, Email) (12)

ABSTRACT (12 Bold)

The abstract should summarize the content of the paper. Try to keep the abstract below 350 words. Do not make references nor display equations in the abstract. The journal will be printed from the same-sized copy prepared by you. Your manuscript should be printed on A4 paper (21.0 cm x 29.7 cm). It is imperative that the margins and style described below be adhered to carefully. This will enable us to keep uniformity in the final printed copies of the Journal. Please keep in mind that the manuscript you prepare will be photographed and printed as it is received. Readability of copy is of paramount importance.(12)

Keywords (12 Bold) : About five key words in alphabetical order, separated by comma (12)


The introduction of the paper should explain the nature of the problem, previous work, purpose, and the contribution of the paper. The contents of each section may be provided to understand easily about the paper. (12)


The headings and subheadings, starting with "1. Introduction", appear in upper and lower case letters and should be set in bold and aligned flush left. All headings from the Introduction to Acknowledgements are numbered sequentially using 1, 2, 3, etc. Subheadings are numbered 1.1, 1.2, etc. If a subsection must be further divided, the numbers 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc.

The font size for heading is 12 points bold face and subsections with 12 points and not bold. Do not underline any of the headings, or add dashes, colons, etc. (12)


The first paragraph under each heading or subheading should be flush left, and subsequent paragraphs should have a five-space indentation. A colon is inserted before an equation is presented, but there is no punctuation following the equation. All equations are numbered and referred to in the text solely by a number enclosed in a round bracket (i.e., (3) reads as "equation 3"). Ensure that any miscellaneous numbering system you use in your paper cannot be confused with a reference [4] or an equation (3) designation. (12)


To ensure a high-quality product, diagrams and lettering MUST be either computerdrafted or drawn using India ink.

Figure captions appear below the figure, are flush left, and are in lower case letters.When referring to a figure in the body of the text, the abbreviation "Fig." is used. Figures should be numbered in the order they appear in the text.

Table captions appear centered above the table in upper and lower case letters. When referring to a table in the text, no abbreviation is used and "Table" is capitalized. (12). Figures and tables should be included in the running text itself


A conclusion section must be included and should indicate clearly the advantages, limitations, and possible applications of the paper. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the paper, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion. A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extentions. (12)


An acknowledgement section may be presented after the conclusion, if desired.( 12)


This heading is not assigned a number.

A reference list MUST be included using the following information as a guide. Only cited text references are included. Each reference is referred to in the text by a number enclosed in a square bracket (i.e., [3]). References must be numbered and ordered according to where they are first mentioned in the paper, NOT alphabetically.

Examples follow:

ournal Papers:

[1] M Ozaki, Y. Adachi, Y. Iwahori, and N. Ishii, Application of fuzzy theory to writer recognition of Chinese characters, International Journal of Modelling and Simulation, 18(2), 1998, 112-116. (12)


[2] R.E. Moore, Interval analysis (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966). (12) Note that the title of the book is in lower case letters and italicized. There is no comma following the title. Place of publication and publisher are given.

Chapters in Books:

[3] P.O. Bishop, Neurophysiology of binocular vision, in J.Houseman (Ed.), Handbook of physiology, 4 (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1970) 342-366. (12) Note that the place of publication, publisher, and year of publication are enclosed in brackets. Editor of book is listed before book title.


[4] D.S. Chan, Theory and implementation of multidimensional discrete systems for signal processing, doctoral diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 1978. (12)

Proceedings Papers:

[5] W.J. Book, Modelling design and control of flexible manipulator arms: A tutorial review, Proc. 29th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, San Francisco, CA, 1990, 500-506 (12)

Manuscripts not adhering to journal guidelines will be returned to authors without scientific evaluation. Submitted manuscripts adhering to journal guidelines are reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief or an Editor, who will assign them to reviewers. The review process is double blind. The Editor prepares a decision letter according to the comments of the reviewers, which is sent to the corresponding author. All non-reviewed manuscripts are sent back within 10 days and the decision letters of manuscripts are sent within 4 weeks.
Open Access authors retain the copyrights of their papers, and all open access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, CC BY (or the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License CC BY-NC), which allows users to (noncommercially) copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship.
The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.
While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
IAEME Publication is committed to maintaining high standards through a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies. Any infringements of professional ethical codes, such as plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, bogus claims of authorship, should be taken very seriously by the editors with zero tolerance..
IAEME Publication follows the Code of Conduct of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), and follows the COPE Flowcharts for Resolving Cases of Suspected Misconduct.
Please find more general information for authors on the page: Information for Authors.

IAEME Publication Fees

IAEME Publication charges an Article Processing Charge (APC) once an article is accepted for publication. These charges cover the costs of turning a manuscript into a finished article, as well as the costs of hosting, distributing and promoting an article.

Article Processing Charges explained

We are committed to making the costs of publishing as clear as possible and so the charges for each journal are clearly displayed on each journal`s homepage.

When a manuscript is submitted, it passes through the many different departments at Hindawi to ensure the quality checks, peer review, production and promotion of articles is carried out in a timely manner and to a high standard:

✔ The Editorial Screening team, who perform initial technical and ethical checks

✔ The Editorial team, who help the journal`s Academic Editors manage the review process

✔ The Production team, who convert the manuscript to a professionally typeset article and well-structured file format

✔ The Proofing team, who coordinate the proofing process through Hindawi`s Online Proofing System (OPS)

✔ The Editorial Quality Assurance team, who perform a final check to ensure that the manuscript and its review process adhere to the journal`s guidelines and policies

✔ Our Marketing and Communication teams, who ensure your article receives the attention it deserves.

✔ The Technology team, who build and maintain our systems, and develop new systems

The work these teams do contribute to the requirement of an APC and is why the actual amount payable varies depending on the journal in which you wish to publish your article.

IAEME Publication does not request Article Submission Charges, also called Submission Fees. These are due at the time of submission of the manuscript. Nor does IAEME charge per page or for color figures or for any other items for which other publishers are known to charge.

Sources for Article Processing Charges (APC)

Authors of an article are responsible for arranging the payment of APC. Still, that typically does not mean that authors end up paying for the publication of the article. The cost of APC is very often assumed either by the organization funding the research published in the article, or by an Open Access Publishing Fund, or by the institution at which the author is employed.

Fair Dealing - Authors and Publisher

When an author submits a manuscript for review at one of IAEME`s journals, the submitted manuscript should not have been previously published in any form and must not be currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. The manuscript should also not be submitted to any other journal during the review process at IAEME Publication. In case the review process at IAEME takes much longer than stated and the author wishes to end the review process at IAEME, he/she should get in contact with the Editorial Assistant of the journal at IAEME and come to an agreement suitable for both sides after looking at the stage of the manuscript in the review process.

With the APC specified above, the author is given an indication what the APC will be. IAEME is charging Publication Fees (APC) but not Submission Fees. This is to the benefit to authors because payments are only due once the author knows the manuscript is accepted. IAEME with editors and reviewers puts much effort in dealing with the manuscript and expects the authors to stick to the common plan of publishing the paper which is linked to payments of APC as given above at the end of the review process. The author is not legally bound at this time, but it would be seen as a strong breach of academic conduct to back off from the publication process. Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, IAEME will issue an invoice in the Paper Submission and Manuscript Tracking System. This is IAEME `s legal offer and will state the regular APC of the journal. The Corresponding Author is expected to arrange payments of the amount stated at this time. In severe cases IAEME `s Complaints Procedure can be followed and the result of this should be binding to the author.

Refund Policy

Once an article has been accepted for publication, any Article Processing Charges on the article become due. The submitting author accepts responsibility for the Article Processing Charges, and will not issue refunds of any kind except those payments made by mistake or in excess of the amount required.

  • Human resource management
  • New theories human resource management
  • Human resource management case studies
  • Human resource management models
  • Human resources managers

IJMHRM Journal Stats

Publication years 2010-2021
Publication count 137
Total Volumes 12
Total Issues 31
Citation count 1480
h-index 15
i5-index 28
Impact Factor 1.58
Downloads 16573
Views 25493
Downloads/article 120.97
Citations/article 10.8

Journal Statistics

Citation Analysis
Research Bible
Microsoft Academic
Web of Science
Google Scholar
Sci Profiles

Related Journals

Create Account

Log In Your Account